Diabetes mellitus is a clinical syndrome characterized by chronic hyperglycemia and disturbances in carbohydrate,lipid and protein metabolism. A patient with diabetes need a complete physical examination to look for any related complications and to manage accordingly.
Check the weight and look for obesity and measure BMI
Facial appearance: note any features of cushings disease
State of hydration
Inspect and look for any ulceration, infection, hair loss, skin atrophy.
Check injection sites on the thigh and note any skin atrophy due to insulin use.
Palpate all the peripheral pulses that includes femoral, popliteal, posterior tibial, dorsalis pedis.
Check pedal edema that can be present due to nephropathy.
Feel the tempreture as the feet may be cold due to ischemia.
Do the neurological assessment by checking the sensations including those of dorsal column.
Reflexes may be diminished due to neuropathy and also look for any signs of proximal muscle wasting.
Joints for Charcot’s joints ( loss of proprioception )
Nails : for candidiasis
Feel upper limb injection sites
Check Blood pressure in supine and standing to detect autonomic neuropathy